Big Cats

Hello Children, yes I know you all know about cats. Some of you do actually own a pussy cat pet at home. However, do you know there also exist big, powerful and dangerous cats?

The Lion (king of the jungle) is actually a member of the cat family, together with Tiger, Leopard, Jaguar, Puma, Cougar, Cheetah, Lynx and many more.

The largest member of the cat family is the Liger. This is a cross between a Lion father and a Tiger mother. They can grow up to 409kg (900lbs), and stand up to 11ft on their hind legs.

 Liger. Image: quora

Liger. Image: quora

The Tigon is a cross between a male tiger and a female lion. They are the second largest members of the Cat family, followed by the Siberian Tiger and the Lion.

The strongest big Cat is the Jaguar. Their jaws can bite down with 2,000 pounds of force. This is twice that of a lion, and is enough to pierce turtle shells.

Imagine a Lake Beneath Kilometers of Ice!

Lake Vostok is in Russia; a sub-glacial lake in Antarctica. It is the largest of about 400 of such lakes in that continent. It is located at the south pole, about 4000m beneath the surface of the ice. Lake Vostok is an age-long (15 million years) sealed body of water containing various organisms.

Vostok Station, a research station, sits above the lake.

 Image: bibliotecapleyades.

Image: bibliotecapleyades.

“The presence of a large buried lake was first suggested in the 1960s by a Russian geographer/pilot who noticed the large, smooth patch of ice above the lake from the air. Airborne radar experiments by British and Russian researchers in 1996 confirmed the discovery of the unusual lake.”







25 Years Under Water!

Hey Tsh Jnr,

Can you believe a town was submerged for 25 Years?

Villa Epecuen was an old tourist town with about 5000 residents. It was established in the 1920's on the banks of Slat Lake, south of Buenos Aires.

 image: messynessychic

image: messynessychic

A dam burst in 1985, flooded and buried the town in more than 30 feet of salt water. The town was evacuated.

The water began to recede after a long 24 years!
A dead ghost town indeed.

Seven Emirates, Seven Sands

Hello TSH Juniors,

Did you know that seven emirates make up the United Arab Emirates?

They are:

 Image: imaginefuture

Image: imaginefuture

1. Abu Dhabi, the Capital

2. Ajman

3. Dubai

4. Fujairah

5. Sharjah

6. Ras Al Khaimah

7. Umm Al Quwain

Did you also know that each Emirate has different shades of sand?

 Image: dpchallenge

Image: dpchallenge

This is because the hues of sands depends on what it is formed of. If the base rock has iron oxide, the sand will be reddish, if it is derived from a bedrock of granite, the sand will be darker; if from limestone, sands will be whitish.



Know Africa - Oreo's Discovery

Hey people!

I came across this list of African countries and their capitals and I thought it would be great for you to know as well.

Here they are:

1. Niger - Niamey

2. Zambia – Lusaka

3. Liberia – Monrovia

4. Guinea – Conkary

5. Cameroon – Yaounde

6.  Lesotho – Maseru

7.  Central African republic – Bangui

8. Republic of Congo – Brazzavile

9. Togo – Lome

10. Senegal - dakar

11. Guinea Bissau - Bissau

12. Chad – N’djamena

13. Equatorial Guniea – Malabo

14. South Africa – Pretoria (Administrative), Bleomfontain (Judiciary), Cape Town (Legislative) 

15. South Sudan - Juba (The Newest Country in Africa)

16. Namibia – Windhoek

17. Gabon – Libreville

18. Angola – Luanda

19. Burkina Faso – Ouagadougou

20. Sierra Leone – Freetown

21. Gambia – Banjul

22. Ghana- Accra

23. Republic of Comoros – Moroni

24. Ethiopia – Addis Ababa

25. Morocco – Rabat

26. Burundi – Bujumbura

27. Botswana – Gaborone

28. Malawi – Lilongwe

29. Republic Democratic of Congo – Kinshasa

30. Madagascar – Antananarivo

31. Seychelles – Victoria

32. Rwanda – Kigali

33. Mali – Bamako

34. Sudan – Khartoum

35. Egypt – Cairo

36. Algeria – Algiers

37. Nigeria – Abuja

38. Mauritania – Nouakchott

39. Cape Verde - Praia

40. Libya – Tripoli

41. Kenya – Nairobi

42. Tanzania – Dodoma

43. Eretria – Asmara

44. Cote D’voire – Yamoussoukro

45. Sao Tome & Principe – Sao Tome

46. Mozambique – Maputo

47. Somalia – Mogadishu

48. Mauritius – Port Louis

49. Benin – Porto-Novo

50. Namibia – Windoek

51. Djibouti – Djibouti

52. Zambia – Lusaka

53. Zimbabwe - Harare

54. Swaziland - Mbabane (Administrative), Lobamba (Legislative & Royal)

Enjoy Learning!

Oreo’s Discovery


About The Ancient Chained Libraries

Hi TSH Juniors, 

Have you ever heard of a chained library?

A chained library is a library where the books are attached to their bookcase by a chain, which is sufficiently long to allow the books to be taken from their shelves and read, but not removed from the library itself. - wikipedia

The largest remaining chained library in the world is in Hereford cathedral, with about 1500 books; some printed and some handwritten. 

 Photo: amusing planet 

Photo: amusing planet 

Possibly the most beautiful book in the world is the Book of Kells, which was produced by monks in the 9th century, on the Hebridean Island of lona. When the Vikings invaded lona in the year 806, some of the monks escaped to Ireland, taking the manuscript with them. Work continued on the book, but sadly, in 1006, the book was stolen. 

However, the thieves were interested only in the gold and jewel encrusted cover, which they removed and buried the pages. 
Three months later the pages were recovered. 
The book was moved to Dublin in 1653, where it remains to this day.

How Did Books Come About Anyway?

Before the invention of the printing press, almost all books were copied by hand, which made books expensive and rare. Different types of ink were known in antiquity, usually prepared from soot and gum, and later also from gall nuts and iron vitriol. This gave writing a brownish black color, but black or brown were not the only colors used. At first, books were copied mostly in monasteries, one at a time. 

 Photo: religiondispatches

Photo: religiondispatches

With increasing number of universities in the 13th century, the manuscript culture of the time led to more demand for books, and a new system for coping books began. 

Books were divided into unbound leaves (pecia), which were lent out to different copyist, so the speed of book production was considerably increased. At one in time religious books were incredibly costly to make, and therefore extremely valuable, so they were kept in chained libraries. Such libraries allowed people to read only, and not taken away, though some were still stolen. In Wells Cathedral, you find only the chain without the books! 

There are still some chained libraries with their books intact in English churches. Among the most famous is the 17th-century library.

The Wonder of a Rudder By Oreo

Hey Guys!

Today I discovered something truly amazing and I’m sure you’ve not heard about it yet but, it’s called a rudder. Now, you’re probably wondering what that is. Well, a rudder is the primary means of control in a marine vessel (ships, boats, submarines), airplanes and hovercrafts too!

 Photo: wartsila

Photo: wartsila

For boats and ships it’s usually a blade positioned at the stern (a stern is the rear or aft-most part of the ship that’s positioned at the sternpost) of the vessel controlled by the pilot to steer the ship to its destination! the rudder is basically one of the most important parts of the ship for its responsible for its turns. Wow! Just imagine something happens to the rudder of a vessel during movement. Hmmm, who knows maybe that’s part of the reason the titanic sank!

 Photo: japanham

Photo: japanham


Now, look at the importance of a rudder on a ship or aircraft. It’s small but strong enough to actually steer a giant monster’s movement. Let’s all try and input a rudder in our lives and let our captain be God who will steer us unto the right paths.

Food for thought

James 3:4-6

4 Likewise, look at the ships: though they are so great and are driven by rough winds, they are steered by a very small rudder wherever the impulse of the helmsman determines.

5 Even so the tongue is a little member, and it can boast of great things. See how much wood or how great a forest a tiny spark can set ablaze!

6 And the tongue is a fire. [The tongue is a] world of wickedness set among our members, contaminating and depraving the whole body and setting on fire the wheel of birth (the cycle of man’s nature), being itself ignited by hell (Gehenna).



For Tsh Juniors  


Stop Bullying Now by Dave

What is Bullying?

 Photo: sites@psu

Photo: sites@psu

My definition - Bullying is when someone older than you, bigger than you, more powerful, or more popular than you thinks he can push you around, insult you and feel like they are better than you.

Internet definition - Bullying is the use of superior strength or influence to intimidate someone, typically to force them to do something.

Types of Bullying

Cyber Bullying - The use of electronic communication to bully a person, typically by sending messages (sms or social media) of an intimidating or threatening nature.

Verbal Bullying - is a means of using words in negative ways, such as insults, teasing, put downs, etc. to gain power over someone else's life.

Physical Bullying - Stealing, shoving, hitting, fighting, and destroying property all are types of physical bullying. Physical bullying is usually the first form of bullying that a target will experience.

 Photo: coordinated Family Care

Photo: coordinated Family Care

Relational Bullying - is a form of bullying common amongst youth, but particularly among girls; it involves a bully trying to hurt a peer and/or that peer's standing within a particular peer group.

 How can we stop Bullying?

We can stop bullying by reporting to a friend, our parents, teachers, or school authorities.

Before you report a bully, tell him, “stop I don’t like what your doing to me" 

If the bully continues, report him or her.

 Photo: Kaplan Early Learning Company

Photo: Kaplan Early Learning Company

Hope you like my presentation.
Thank you! 

Dave McArthur

The One & Only Supersonic Concorde Aircraft

Hey Kids, there was once an aeroplane called, Concorde. It was a super fast aircraft, a turbojet powered supersonic passenger aircraft that could travel at a maximum velocity of over twice the speed of sound.

Concorde was a joint project by the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) of United Kingdom and Aerospatiale of France.  The name Concorde, which means harmony or union, aptly reflects the co-operation between both countries. In the UK, it was simply known as Concorde, without an article like “the” or “a”.

 Photo: stemitt

Photo: stemitt

Cool Facts

·      The first Concorde, 001 was built in France, and made its first test run on the 2nd of March 1969.

·      The second Concorde, 002 was built in United Kingdom, and first flew on the 9th of April 1969.

·      Concorde 002's first commercial flight was from Heathrow to Bahrain, and Concorde 001's  from Paris to Rio was on January 21st 1976.

·      20 Concordes were built, and 14 flew commercially

·      Concorde sat 100 passengers

·      Air France and British Airways were the only airlines to purchase Concorde.

·      Concorde flights originated from London Heathrow and Paris Charles De Gaulle Airports only. 

·      Concorde traveled at more than twice the speed of sound with a loud rumble, so noisy that it was not allowed to fly over some countries such as Saudi Arabia, so it doesn’t affect their camel breeding.

·      A typical trans-Atlantic flight to John F. Kennedy airport in New York, and Dulles airport in Washington amongst other destinations, took less than half the time of a regular commercial flight.

 Photo: Concordesst

Photo: Concordesst

·      Its fastest journey was New York to London on January 1st 1983, 2hrs and 56mins.

·      It flew up to 60,000 feet; at this height, it was possible for passengers to see the curvature of the earth.

·      The aircraft stretched between 6 and 10 inches during flights; this was as a result of the intense heat generated by the airframe.

·      Every surface on the aircraft, including the windows was very warm to the touch after a flight. 

·      The aircraft was painted in special white paint to help cool the plane after a flight.

·      Concorde provided the ideal flying option for the very busy business executive, as it afforded the opportunity and convenience to meet same day appointments in Europe and America.

·      Air France recorded its last Concorde flight on May 31st 2003, and British Airways on October 24th 2003. After which the aircraft was retired as a result of declining patronage due to environmental concerns, high oil price, as well as the Concorde crash of 2000 in Paris.

Will Concorde Ever Return?

It will be nice to see a return of this iconic supersonic aircraft.

Were you privileged to fly the Concorde?  Please share your ‘Concorde Experience’ in the comments box.

- Terence McArthur





The Wonders of Creation - Lake Hillier, The Pink Lake

Roses are Red
Oceans are Blue

Lake Hillier is an oddity, it's pink! 

The lake is situated off the coast of Western Australia. It is 600 meters in length and lies just beside the blue pacific ocean. It was discovered in the 1800’s by a navigator Matthew Flinders, and it inhabits lots of fish species.
Scientists suspect that the lake’s pink color is as a result of a type of microalgae present in the water, which produces carotenoids, same pigment found in carrots.

Although the lake is harmless for swimming; swimming is however not allowed. 

The Wonders of Creation - Giant Causeway




Giant causeway is located on the North East coast of Northern Ireland, in county Antrim. It is an area of over about 40,000 interlocking ‘basalt’ mostly hexagonal columns. The top of the columns, form stepping stones that lead from the cliff foot into the sea; they are up to 12 metres high and 28 metres thick.
There is a story, however, that this site was carved by a giant Finn McCool – Hard to believe though.

 Photo: covingtontravel

Photo: covingtontravel

The Wonders of Creation - Thor's Well



Thor’s Well is a gaping hole in the rock that seems to be draining the pacific. It is a sure scary sight, which would swallow anything that comes its way.

It is a huge hole and about 20 feet deep. Thor’s Well releases jets of water, which it pumps up into the air; this is aided by the strength of the tides of the ocean. Wow!

 Photo: roadtrippers

Photo: roadtrippers

Why Only Female Mosquitoes Bite

Hi Guys, well I’m quite sure that you’re wondering how come it’s just female mosquitoes that bite. Well, this is more than true. There are a few reasons why only female mosquitoes bite.

They need way more protein in their diets, and protein can be found in blood (loads of it). Now I know you’re wondering why they need protein; they need protein because it gives them enough energy to produce eggs, as they lay up to 100 eggs at once, which is a lot.

The male mosquitoes are a lot smaller, because they do not suck blood; they just feed on nectar.

- Oreo's Discovery


How Pearls are Made – Oreo’s Discovery

 Photo: gemscience

Photo: gemscience

Don’t you think pearls are just absolutely beautiful?

Well, I was just wondering…how these beauties are made, and where do they come from?

Well, here’s what I found out!

Firstly, a pearl is a hard object produced inside the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusc. Well, just like the shell of an oyster, clam and mussels.

How are pearls produced?

 Photo: Hackingfamily

Photo: Hackingfamily

Ooook! Oysters are two halves closed up together with a little opening, held together by an elastic ligament, which allows the opening to let in food for the oyster. When a foreign object or particle finds its way through the ligament; the oyster reacts by covering it up with layers on nacre (this is produced by the mantle, an organ that produces the oyster’s shell, using minerals from its food intake. It also uses this same process to produce its shell as it grows bigger) to protect itself from the object that maybe harmful to it. The covering on the foreign body/irritant becomes the pearl, after several coatings of nacre, which accounts for the shapes and colors of pearls. Other determinants of the color of pearls are the type of oyster, its aquatic environment, and oftentimes, when cultured, the farmers can influence the color by adding a tissue from another oyster when inserting the irritant.

Oysters produce pearls in both fresh water and salt water environments, which is why there are oyster farms where pearls are produced by implanting irritants into the oysters (cultured pearls), so that they are aggravated to produce the nacre coating for lovely pearls to form. These are usually not as expensive as natural pearls.

 Photo: kojimapearl

Photo: kojimapearl

For many centuries, the finest qualities of natural pearls are highly valued as gemstones and objects of beauty. It’s even used as a metaphor to emphasize the beauty of something or someone.

Flying in Reverse - Amazing Beauties

Hey Kids,

Hummingbirds fly in Reverse motion.

Can you believe that?

They are small and colorful; their wings flap as fast as approximately 80 times per second, thus making humming sounds. These beauties fly right, left, up, down, backwards, and amazingly upside down.They are found in the Western Hemisphere, mainly Southeastern Alaska to Southern Chile.

What is Sugar Made of?

Hey Kids,

Do you know that white sugar is white because it was further purified or refine from brown sugar?

Sugar is a carbohydrate found in fruits and vegetables. 

No wonder my grandmother stays away from brown sugar, she doesn't like the sound of 'refined' or 'purified.'

 Photo: eastsidedistilling

Photo: eastsidedistilling

Sugar is made when sugar cane or beet plant is juiced and boiled, then squeezed. It is spun in a revolving drum to remove the water and crystals of brown sugar are left behind. 

The brown sugar is further purified, dissolved and filtered, then it becomes white sugar.

- Ay's Discovery

(This is the process simplified, sugar refining is a bit of a longer process)


Silk from Worms?

Can you imagine that a beautiful fabric like silk was produced by worms?

 Let’s See…


 Silk is a natural protein fiber, usually woven into textiles, mostly obtained from cocoons made by the larvae of the mulberry silkworm. The worm is killed, and the cocoon unwound into a single thread. They are called mulberry silk worms because they feed off mulberry leaves.



Many cocoons would have to be unwound to get lots of threads. That is why silk is one of the most expensive fabrics.

"Wild silks" are produced by caterpillars other than the mulberry silkworm and cannot be artificially cultivated. Cocoons gathered in the wild are usually damaged when the moth wants to emerge, so by the time the cocoon is unraveled, the threads are shorter because of the damage.



Silkworms are killed by dipping them in boiling water before the adult moths emerge, to avoid shorter threads for better commercial value.



The worms could also be pierced with a needle, to allow the whole cocoon to be unraveled as one continuous thread. This permits a much stronger cloth to be woven from the silk.

Wild silks are more difficult to dye than silk from the cultivated silkworm.



Do You Know the Power of Puzzles?

Hey Kids,

Do You Know the Power of Puzzles?

Puzzles and riddles are as old as history itself.

The word Puzzle comes from the French word pusle which means - bewilder, confound.

The British government recommends the puzzle Sudoku to be used in the classroom as brain exercise.

Teachers express interest in crossword as adjunct teaching tools.

Benefit of puzzles

· Puzzles are educational tools for all ages, from toddlers to old adults.

· It enhances your development.

. It improves hand-eye coordination since children will have to fit the jigsaw pieces into the board properly.

. It develops shape/size recognition and matching ability.

. It develops reasoning, logical thinking, spelling and word attack skills.

. It enhances spatial relation skills.

. It develops pre-reading skills by enhancing children’s ability to recognize shapes.

. It develops perseverance attitude since you will have to persevere to be able to complete jigsaw puzzle.

. It enhances social skills. Who would not enjoy putting jigsaw pieces together with friends and family by the way?

Crosswords not only lighten your mood, but they also benefit the mind, by keeping the wits sharp, according to puzzle solvers and medical experts.

It's easy to get hooked on crosswords, and most newspapers editors use it as an addictive tool to their publication.

Dear Parent,

Here are the Benefits of Puzzle for the Brain

Through a 21-year study published in June by doctors at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York, senior citizens who worked crossword puzzles four days a week faced a 47 percent lower risk of dementia than those who did them once a week.

Dr. Robert Friedland, a professor of neurology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, has studied the effects of intellectual stimulation in preventing Alzheimer's disease and other age-related neurological disorders. People who are more intellectually active from age 20 to 60 are less likely to get Alzheimer's.

The idea applies to educational activities (such as taking a class or learning a new skill) as well as recreational activities (solving a puzzle).

Crossword puzzles are effective in classrooms because they step outside the usual structure of schoolwork. It's a fun way to get at the same kind of learning.

 *this article may be better understood by older juniors, younger ones only need to know the basics




How Many Bulbs Can You Light?


The electric eel is a freshwater predator. It is capable of generating powerful electric shocks,

which it uses for both hunting and self-defence. Despite its name it is not an eel but rather a

Knifefish. They live in the murky streams and ponds of the Amazon and Orinoco basins of

South America tropical regions.

As air-breathers, they must come to the surface frequently. They also have poor eyesight,

but can emit a low-level charge, less than 10 volts, which they use like radar to navigate and

locate prey.



The higher intensity charges vary by the size of the eel. Smaller eels can produce charges of

up to 100 V, while larger eels produce charges of 450 to 650 volts of electricity.

The electric organs of the eel are located in its tail, which is most the body.

The electric organs are used many different ways by the electric eel. The low intensity

impulses are used by the eel for sensory perception. This helps it navigate in its habitat

(muddy streams) where vision is blocked. The low intensity impulses are also used for


Electric eels can reach 8 feet (2.5 meters) in length and 44 pounds (20 kilograms) in weight.

They have long, cylindrical bodies and flattened heads (like the cat fish) and are generally

dark green or grayish on top with yellowish coloring underneath.

Human deaths from electric eels are rare. However, multiple shocks can cause respiratory or

heart failure and people have been known to drown in shallow water after a stunning jolt.

A 20-foot eel can produce enough electrical current to light 12 household light bulbs.